Mathematical symbols and notation
symbol description
$+$ plus, add, positive
- minus, subtract, negative
± uncertainty, error, plus-minus
· multiply, dot, dot product, scalar product
× multiply, cross, cross product, vector product
÷, / divide
$x^2$ square
$x^3$ cube
$\sqrt{x}$ square root, root, radical
cube root
1x, x−1 invert, reciprocal
= equal to, equality
approximately equal to
proportional to
not equal to, inequality
~ on the order of, tilde
< less than
> greater than
less than or equal to
greater than or equal to
⇒, ⇐ logical implication
logical equivalence
and so on, ellipsis
f(x) function
sin sine
cos cosine
tan tangent
sinh hyperbolic sine
cosh hyperbolic cosine
tanh hyperbolic tangent
unit vector, hat, circumflex
mean, average, antiparticle, bar, macron, overline
median, supersymetric particle, tilde
⟨⟩ time average, ensemble average, bracket
p(x) probability distribution, probability density function
Δ increment, change, delta
d differential, d
partial differential, d partial
gradient, del
∇· divergence, div, del dot
∇× curl, del cross
2 laplacian, del squared
summation, sigma
double integral
triple integral
contour integral
surface integral
volume integral
0 transfinite number, aleph null